Brady-Curran Darkon Theory

The following paper was made available by
Don Curran

It appears as it did in Elekgtroteknisk Tidsskrift (Electrotechnical Journal), Norway, Vol. 83, No. 3, 5 February 1970


The Darkon Theory of Light


M. Michael Brady2 and Donald R. Curran3





The winter nights are long in Norway, and the authors of this paper have often remarked upon the phenomenon that the darkness seems to "press in" upon one.  This effect has prompted an elaborate and thorough series of measurements performed in the authors' respective independent laboratories and utilizing the most advanced electronic and computational techniques.  The results conclusively show that the customary theory of light and electromagnetic phenomena have been consistently misinterpreted by theoreticians and experimentalists alike.  In short, the concept of the photon has been found to be a misleading, if not actually invalid, method of describing electromagnetic phenomena.  In place of the photon considered as a quantized unit of light energy, it has been conclusively demonstrated by our experiments that the correct fundamental unit is a quantized unit of dark, which we have called the Darkon.  The symbol chosen for the darkon is the runic symbol F.



Darkon sources and sinks


It is important to grasp the significance at the outset of the concept of darkon sources and sinks.  It is obvious that the sun, for example, in common with the other stars, is a powerful darkon sink. Everything which is not a darkon sink is a darkon source.  Thus it can be easily seen that the boundary layer of the universe is a place where darkons are emitted in an unending stream which flows inward to be eventually absorbed by localized and/or discrete darkon sinks.  A prime goal of our experiments was to obtain a credible measure of the flux density of the darkon radiation and thus obtain a quantitative as well as qualitative and concise measure of the power of darkness.

            Careful inspection of the basic darkon hypothesis reveals the fundamental lack of strangeness of the darkon as a quantum particle: it is its own anti-particle.  It is interesting, as an aside, to note that this characteristic was predicted in 1932 by Carid, a Danish brewery worker whose sole method of publishing his theoretical works was in handwritten form on the reverse side of beer labels.  Luckily, the authors of this paper discovered one of Carid's original works, which they gratefully acknowledge as being the cornerstone of their experimental technique.

            Without going into extensive detail, the experiment comprised connecting a carefully-calibrated pmal4 to an array of thermoelectric junctions arranged to transfer darkon energy-quanta to a large dewar flask containing a random selection of known darkon sources, in this experiment, two cases of export beer.  An experimental check was maintained by replacing the last five bottles in each case with bottles of English beer, which the experimenters have discovered can only be drunk when extremely saturated with darkons (or "cold" in everyday language).

            When exposed to an unknown darkon flux, the calibrated pmal absorbs darkons, whose energy finally resides in the dewar.  With careful adjustments, the losses of the system should be compensated by the darkon energy absorbed by the pmal, and the beer will remain saturated with darkons ("cold").  This adjustment is usually extremely difficult to achieve, and it is necessary to remove bottles from the dewar at regular intervals.  Operating in this fashion, the experimenters discovered that the English beer was thoroughly drinkable after the experiment had been in progress for only two hours, conclusively illustrating the power of darkness.



The velocity of dark


Our next experimental goal was to measure the velocity of propagation of dark.  This is most easily done in a non-dispersive medium by measuring the speed of propagation of an interruption in an otherwise steady-state darkon stream.

            Although unaware of the significance of his work at the time, Römer made the first determination of darkon velocity in 1675 by observing the darkon emission of the first satellite of the planet Jupiter.  In 1849, Fizeau observed the propagation of darkon streams from outer darkness towards terrestrial sinks.  The full significance of these unrecognized but visionary measurements of darkon propagation were also carefully hidden in Michelson's historic rotating-sink experiment. Revision of Michelson's work plus careful comparison with radio-frequency darkon absorption has shown the speed of darkon propagation to be


-2.5502072 x 108 mil/døgn


where the unit of distance, the Norwegian mil is equal to ten kilometres and the unit of time, the Norwegian døgn is, as we have previously indicated, 24 hours of total darkness.  The astute student of the older theory of light will immediately recognize that the negative of this unit, when converted to the archaic system of units, is 299792.5 km/sec, which is indeed a less tractable formulation.



The quantum theory of dark


The simultaneous emission of darkons and electrons from metallic surfaces has been previously regarded as a physical enigma.  First observed by Lenard in 1902, the effect was erroneously explained by Einstein in 1905 in terms of photons!  (Einstein was said to be one of the earliest believers in photons.)  This confusion probably arose from his failure to recognize that a photon is actually a hole in a sea of darkons in positive energy states.  Essentially, when electrons escape from a metal, they don't do so alone: they take darkons with them.  If they don't escape, the darkons don't escape either.  This phenomenon is known as the darkon threshold.  If an electron performs an amount of work W to escape from a metallic surface, then the condition for hinderance of darkon emission (remember, one wishes to conserve, not get rid of darkons) is:


hf ≤ W


where f is the frequency of the darkon emission and h is Plank's constant.  It is interesting to observe that high-energy darkon emission can give rise to intense absorption bands, a phenomena first observed by Compton and erroneously held to explain photon effects in the X-Ray region!

            Little is known about the darkon absorption of unstable nuclei.  Since 1945, there have been isolated experiments in this field, but the modern civilized world is apprehensive of the excessive darkon depletion caused by fall-in resulting from such violent and sudden absorptions of large masses of darkons.



Biological effects of darkon radiation


It is not at present known how extensive the biological effects of darkon radiation are on human beings exposed to intense exposure.  One immediate observation concerns the coloured races of Scandinavia , whose skins have been whitened by continual exposure to an intense darkon flux, whereas the races of Africa and southern Asia are relatively less affected.

            It might be noted in passing that certain Scandinavians are inherently capable of avoiding excessive darkon radiation, simply by removing most or all of their clothes whenever the largest local darkon sink (sun) is not shielded by clouds or rotten weather.  This phenomena occurs most often, but not always, in the summer, a well-known period of darkon depletion.




Our measurements have clearly shown that all present theories have misinterpreted the nature of electromagnetic phenomena.  Through continued experimental and theoretical investigations, it is expected that much additional darkness can be thrown upon these important questions.



1 Originally published in Elekgtroteknisk Tidsskrift (Electrotechnical Journal), Norway , Vol. 83, No. 3, 5 February 1970 , and subsequently in modified form in journals in Denmark and the USA .  This is a transcript of the original article.


2 Current (1995) affiliation: MBC, Oslo , Norway .


3 Current (1995) affiliation: SRI, California .


4 As eloquently pointed out by T or Schaug-Pettersen of the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim , the pmal is an often misunderstood device.  Although manufactured in great quantities almost all over the world, even its name is usually spelled backwards by believers in the older, less correct, so-called "theory of light."